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Investing, Financial, Trading and Crypto Terms - Dictionary (P)

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Investing/Finance/Trading/Crypto Dictionary
P/E ratio: The price-to-earnings ratio (P/E ratio) is the ratio for valuing a company that measures its current share price relative to its per-share earnings.
Parent company: A parent company is a company that owns enough voting stock in another firm to control management and operations by influencing or electing its board of directors.
Parity: Parity refers to the condition of being equal in value, status, or amount. In finance, it often refers to the condition of two currencies having the same value or purchasing power.
Participating shares: Participating shares are a type of stock that gives holders the right to participate in the distribution of profits in addition to receiving dividends.
Passive management: Passive management is an investment strategy that aims to replicate the performance of a market index or benchmark, rather than actively managing and selecting individual stocks.
Physical replication: Physical replication refers to a technique used in index funds to replicate the performance of an index by holding the same securities that make up the index, in the same proportions as the index.
Pink slips: Pink slips are informal term used for a notice of termination or a layoff given to an employee. It comes from the custom of the slip of paper being pink in color.
Pip: A pip is a unit of measurement used in the foreign exchange market to express the change in value between two currencies. One pip is equal to the smallest change in value that a currency pair can make, typically 0.0001 for most currency pairs.
Portfolio: A portfolio is a collection of investments, such as stocks, bonds, and real estate properties, held by an individual or organization.
Portfolio risk: Portfolio risk is the potential for an investment portfolio to lose value due to a variety of factors, including market fluctuations, interest rate changes, and economic conditions.
Position: In finance, a position refers to the amount of a security, commodity, or currency that is owned or borrowed by an individual or organization.
Post market: The post-market refers to the period of trading that occurs after the regular market hours, usually between 4:00 PM and 8:00 PM EST.
Power of attorney: A power of attorney is a legal document that gives someone the authority to act on another person's behalf in financial or legal matters.
Pre-market: The pre-market refers to the period of trading that occurs before the regular market hours, usually between 4:00 AM and 9:30 AM EST.
Preference shares: Preference shares (or preferred shares) are a type of stock that gives holders priority over common shareholders in terms of dividends and assets in the event of liquidation.
Profit and loss statement: A profit and loss statement (also known as an income statement) is a financial statement that shows a company's revenues, costs, and expenses over a period of time, usually a quarter or a year.
PTM (panel of takeovers and mergers) levy: A PTM levy is a fee that companies are required to pay when they make certain changes to their ownership structure, such as a merger or acquisition.
Pullback: A pullback is a temporary reversal in the price of an asset, which often occurs after a strong upward or downward trend.
Purchasing managers index (PMI): A purchasing managers index (PMI) is a measure of the economic health of a particular sector or country, based on a survey of purchasing managers in manufacturing and service industries.
Put option: A put option is a financial contract that gives the holder the right, but not the obligation, to sell an underlying asset at a specified price (strike price) on or before a certain date (expiration date).